Article | 10. 2017 Vol. 06, Issue. 3
Analysis of Seed Germinating Vigor, Germination Speed and Peak Time in 9 Fescues under Alternative and Natural Conditions at the Room Temperature



Dept. of Environmental Design and Horticulture, College of Science and Technology, Sahmyook University1




2017.10. 222:248


PDF XML




This study was initiated to investigate seed germinating vigor, germination speed, and establishment characteristics of Festuca species under natural conditions (5-25°C). Germination rate was 62.0% in CRF ‘Audubon’ to 97.0% in TF ‘Olympic Gold’. It was greater with TF over fine-type fescues, being TF>SF>CF, HF>CRF. The germination speed, measured as days to seed germination of 50% through 80%, was fastest with TF, medium to high with CF, medium with HF and SF, and slowest with CRF. However, it was approximately 4 days slower under natural conditions, as compared with that under alternative conditions (15-25°C). Germination peak time was much faster with TF. It ranged from 0.73 to 1.84 days with TF, being 1.45 days in average. But it varied with 2.16 to 11.75 days among fine-type species. The peak time was longer in order of SFCF>SF>HF>CRF.



1. Alderson, J. and Sharp, W.C. 1995. Grass varieties in the United States-United States Department of Agriculture, CRC Press, Inc., New York, NY, USA.  

2. Anonymous. 1964. Rules for testing seeds. Proceedings of the Association of Official Seed Analysts 54(2):1-112.  

3. Beard, J.B. 1973. Turfgrass: Science and culture. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA.  

4. Beard, J.B. 1982. Turf management for golf courses. Burgess Publishing Company Minneapolis, MN, USA.  

5. Beard, J.B. and Beard, H.J. 2005. Beard’s turfgrass encyclopedia for golf courses, grounds, lawns and sports fields. Michigan State Univ. Press, East Lansing, MI, USA.  

6. Dernoeden, P.H. 1998. Fine fescues on golf courses: Around the edges of courses, fine-leaf fescues offer low-maintenance alternatives. Golf Course Management 66(4):56-60.  

7. Fry, J. and Huang, B. 2004. Applied turfgrass science and physiology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA.  

8. Hanson, A.A., Juska, F.V. and Burton, G.W. 1969. Species and varieties. Agron. Monogr. 14:370-409. In: Hanson, A.A. and Juska, F.V. (Eds.). Turfgrass Science. ASA, Madison, WI, USA.  

9. Jeon, W.B. 1997. Regulation for international seed testing association (I). Kor. J. of Turfgrass Sci. 11:211-264.  

10. Kim, K.N. 2005. Comparison of summer turf performance, color and green color retention among cool-season grasses grown under USGA soil system. J. Kor. Inst. Landscape Architecture 33(5):18-30. (In Korean)  

11. Kim, K.N. 2008. Germination characteristics and daily seed germinating pattern in coarse-textured tall fescues grown under ISTA conditions. J. Nat. Sci. Sahmyook Univ. 12(2):25-36. (In Korean)  

12. Kim, K.N. 2009. Comparison of germination characteristics and daily seed germinating pattern in varieties of coarse-textured tall fescue under alternative and natural room temperature conditions. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 23(1):23-34. (In Korean)  

13. Kim, K.N. 2012. STM series I-Introductory turfgrass science. 2ed. Sahmyook Univ. Press, Seoul, Korea.  

14. Kim, K.N. 2013a. Comparison of germination characteristics and daily seed germinating pattern in fine-textured fescues grown under alternative and natural conditions at the room temperature. Weed Turf Sci. 2(1):47-54. (In Korean)  

15. Kim, K.N. 2013b. STM series III-Turfgrass establishment. 2ed. Sahmyook Univ. Press, Seoul, Korea.  

16. Kim, K.N. 2014. Comparison of germination characteristics and daily seed germinating pattern in 15 new cultivars of Kentucky bluegrass grown under alternating temperature conditions. Weed Turf Sci. 3(1):29-40. (In Korean)  

17. Kim, K.N. 2015. Comparison of germination power, germination speed, and germination peak time among five Festuca species. Weed Turf Sci. 4(4):1-8. (In Korean)  

18. Kim, K.N., Choi, J.S. and Nam, S.Y. 2003a. Performance of warm-season and cool-season grass grown in multi-layer, USGA and mono-layer system for athletic fields. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 44: 539-544. (In Korean)  

19. Kim, K.N. and Jung, K.W. 2008. Comparison of seed germinating vigor, early germination characteristics, germination speed and germination peak time in new varieties of the third generation of creeping bentgrass under different growing conditions. J. Kor. Env. Res. Reveg. Tech. 11(5):79-91. (In Korean)  

20. Kim, K.N. and Nam, S.Y. 1999. Comparison of the turf performance of bluegrasses, fescues, ryegrasses and zoysiagrass under a tree shade. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 13(1):37-54. (In Korean)  

21. Kim, K.N. and Nam, S.Y. 2003. Comparison of early germinating vigor, germination speed and germination rate of varieties in Poa pratensis L., Lolium perenne L., and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. grown under different growing conditions. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 17(1):1-12.  

22. Kim, K.N. and Park, W.K. 2003. Study on cultural practices, growth rate and time to harvest in sod production of cool-season grass grown under pure sand soil. J. Nat. Sci. Sahmyook Univ. 8(1):19-33. (In Korean)  

23. Kim, K.N. and Park, S.H. 2010. Comparison of germination characteristics and daily seed germinating pattern in fine-textured fescue. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 28(4):567-573. (In Korean)  

24. Kim, K.N., Park, W.K and Nam, S.Y. 2003b. Comparison of establishment vigor, uniformity, rooting potential and turf quality of sods of Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue and cool-season grass mixtures grown in sand soil. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 17(4):129-146. (In Korean)  

25. Kim, K.N. and Shim, S.R. 2003. Comparison of soil surface hardness, soil compaction, and infiltration rate of warm-season and cool-season grasses grown under athletic field soil systems. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 44(6): 991-997. (In Korean)  

26. Kim, K.N., Shim, S.R. and Nam, S.Y. 2005. Differences of cool-season grass adaptation under multi-layer, USGA and mono-layer systems in Korea. Int. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 10:572-580.  

27. Landschoot, P.J., Park, B.S., McNitt, A.S. and Livingston, D. 2000. Performance of fine fescue cultivars and selections (1993-96). 2000 Annual Research Report. Center for Turfgrass Science, The Pennsylvania State University. University Park, PA. pp. 19-26.  

28. Lee, J.P., Kim, S.J., Seo, H.Y., Han, I.S., Lee, S.J., Kim, T.J. and Kim, D.H. 2001a. The effect of shade net on summer stress of cool-season turfgrass. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 15(2):51-64. (In Korean)  

29. Lee, H.J., Song, J.W. and Ku, J.H. 2001b. Effect of root zone cooling on growth and mineral contents of turfgrasses in simulated athletic field during summer season. Kor. J. of Turfgrass Sci. 15:169-179. (In Korean)  

30. Meyer, W.A. and Watkins, E. 2003. Tall fescue (Festuca aruninacea). pp. 107-127. In: Castler, M.D. and Duncan, R.R. (Eds.). Turfgrass biology, genetics, and breeding. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA.  

31. NTEP (National Turfgrass Evaluation Program). 1994a. National Fineleaf Fescue Test-1989. Final Report 1990-93. NTEP No. 94-17, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

32. NTEP. 1994b. National fineleaf fescue test-1989. Progress Report 1993. NTEP No. 94-12, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

33. NTEP. 1995a. National fineleaf fescue test-1993. 1994 Progress Report. NTEP No. 95-4, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

34. NTEP. 1995b. National tall fescue Test-1992. 1994 Progress Report. NTEP No. 95-5, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

35. NTEP. 1996a. National fineleaf fescue test-1993. 1995 Progress Report. NTEP No. 96-8, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

36. NTEP. 1996b. National tall fescue test-1992. Final Report 1993-95. NTEP No. 96-13, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

37. NTEP. 1996c. National tall fescue test-1992. 1995 Progress Report. NTEP No. 96-5, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

38. NTEP. 1997. National fineleaf fescue test-1993. 1996 Progress Report. NTEP No. 97-7, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

39. NTEP. 1998. National fineleaf fescue test-1993. Progress Report 1997. NTEP No. 98-10, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

40. NTEP. 1999. National tall fescue Test-1996. Progress Report 1998. NTEP No. 99-2, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

41. NTEP. 2000a. National fineleaf fescue test-1998. Progress Report 1999. NTEP No. 00-3, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

42. NTEP. 2000b. National tall fescue Test-1996. Progress Report 1999. NTEP No. 00-5, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

43. NTEP. 2001a. National fineleaf fescue test-1998. Progress Report 2000. NTEP No. 01-4, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

44. NTEP. 2001b. National tall fescue Test-1996. Final Report 1997-2000. NTEP No. 01-14, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

45. NTEP. 2001c. National tall fescue Test-1996. Progress Report 2000. NTEP No. 01-9, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

46. NTEP. 2002. National fineleaf fescue test-1998. Progress Report 2001. NTEP No. 02-4, National Turfgrass Federation, Inc., Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, MD, USA.  

47. Perdomo, P., Murphy, J.A., Meyer, W.A., Funk, C.R., Smith, D.A., et al. 1999. Performance of fine fescue cultivars and selections in New Jersey turf trials. 1999 Rutgers Turfgrass Proceedings 31:69-97, NJ, USA.  

48. Riordan, T.P. 1997. Low maintenance turfgrass-The practical choice for golf course roughs. Grounds Maintenance 32(8): G44-G48.  

49. Ruemmele, B.A., Wipff, J.K, Brilman, L. and Hignight, K.W. 2003. Fine-leaved Festuca species. pp. 129-174. In: Castler, M.D. and Duncan, R.R. (Eds.). Turfgrass biology, genetics, and breeding. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA.  

50. SAS Institute, Inc. 2001. SAS/STAT User’s guide, Version 8.00, SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC, USA.  

51. Shim, S.R. and Jeong, D.Y. 2002. Turfgrass selection for soccer fields-A simulation of the Inchon 2002 World Cup Stadium. J. Kor. Inst. Landscape Architecture 30(2):88-94.  

52. The Lawn Institute. 1991a. Cultivars. LISTS 113-154. In: Roberts, E.C. and Roberts, B.C. (Eds.). Lawn Institute Special Topic Sheets, Tennessee Cumberland Printing Corp., Crossville, TN, USA.  

53. The Lawn Institute. 1991b. Seed. LISTS 69-112. In E. C. Roberts and B. C. Roberts (Eds.). Lawn Institute Special Topic Sheets, Tennessee Cumberland Printing Corp., Crossville, TN, USA.  

54. Turgeon, A.J. 2005. Turfgrass management. 7th ed., Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA.  

55. Vengris, J. and Torello, W.A. 1982. Lawns-Basic factors, construction and maintenance of fine turf areas. Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA, USA.  

56. Watschke, T.L. 1990. Low maintenance grasses for highway roadsides. Grounds Maintenance 25(8):40-41.  

57. Watschke, T.L. and Schmidt, R.E. 1992. Ecological aspects of turf communities. Agron. Monogr. 32:129-174. In: Waddington, D.V., Carrow, R.N. and Shearman, R.S. (Eds.). Turfgrass. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI, USA.  



online submission
Most Viewed
Sub Menu
Sub Menu