Southern Forest Resources Research Center, National Institute of Forest Science1
Dvision of Applied Life Science (BK21 Plus) and Institute of Agriculture & Life Science, Gyeongsang National University2
To prevent large patch disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-2, in zoysiagrass a fungicide, Tebuconazole and three microbial agents Streptomyces sp. Burkholderia sp. and Streptomyces sp. S8 were applied in commercial turfgrass cultivation field in Sanchung, Gyeongnam, Korea. All treatments showed 50% reduced the pathogen population in thatch layer throughout the yearly cultivation period. Not only reduced the pathogen population, Tebuconazole, Streptomyces sp. Burkholderia sp. and Streptomyces sp. S8 treatment also enhanced turfgrass growth, chlorophyll and proline content. Malondialdehyde contents in each treatment was reduced from 6.2~28.9% when compared with the control. Taken together, reduction of pathogen population in soil lowered the disease incidence or severity, and allowed the turfgrass developed as normal condition. The results suggested that the selected microbial agents may use as biological control and growth promotion agents for the Zoysia turfgrass.
1. Abeles, F.B., Bosshart, R.P., Forrence, L.E. and Habig, W.H. 1971. Preparation and purification of glucanase and chitinase from bean leaves. Plant Physiol. 47:129-34.
2. Bae, E.J., Lee, K.S., Kim, D.S., Han, E.H., Lee, S.M., et al. 2013. Sod production and current status of cultivation management in Korea. Weed Turf. Sci. 2:95-99. (In Korean)
3. Bae, E.J., Lee, K.S., Park, N.C. and Huh, M.R. 2012. Effect of topdressing heignt on the growth of zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica). J. Agric. Life Sci. 46:83-89. (In Korean)
4. Beard, J.B. 1973. Turfgrass: Science and culture. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New jersey. USA.
5. Boller, T., Gehri, A., Mauch, F. and Vogeli, U. 1983 . Chitinase in bean leaves: Induction by ethylene, purification, properties and possible functions. Planta. 157:22-31.
6. Bouyoucoc, C.J. 1962. Hydrometer methods improved for making particle size analysis of soils. Agron. J. 54:464-465.
7. Budge, G.E., Shaw, M.W., Colyer, A., Pietravalle, S. and Boonham, N. 2009. Molecular tools to investigate Rhizoctonia solani distribution in soil. Plant Pathology. 58:1071-1080.
8. Chae, D.H., Jin, R.D., Hwangbo, H., Kim, Y.W., Kim, Y.C., et al. 2006. Control of late blight (Phytophthora capsici) in pepper plant with a compost containing multitude of chitinase-producing bacteria. Bio Control. 51: 339-351.
9. Choi, J.S. and Yang, G.M. 2005. Comparison of growth rate and cold tolerance with basic species, commercial lines, and breeding lines of zoysiagrass. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 19: 131-140. (In Korean)
10. Choi. J.S. and Yang, G.M. 2006. Sod production in South Korea. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 20: 237-251. (In Korean)
11. Chung, Y.R., Kim, H.T., Kim, T.J. and Cho, K.Y. 1991. Cultural characteristics and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia species isolated from zoysiagrass and bentgrass. Korean J. Plant Pathol. 7:230-235. (In Korean)
12. Couch, H.B. and Haygood, R.A. 1990. The nature and control of Rhizoctonia blight. Golf Course Management. 58:48-58.
13. Dale, J.L. 1978. A typical symptom of Rhizoctonia infection on zoysia. Plant Dis. Reptr. 62:645-647.
14. Delauney, A.J. and Verma, D.P.S. 1993. Proline biosynthesis and osmoregulation in plants. Plant J. 4:215-223.
15. Endo, R.M. 1961. Turfgrass diseases in southern California. Plant Dis. Reptr. 45:869-873.
16. Engelke, M.C., Murray, J.J. and Yeam, D.Y. 1983. Distribution, collection and use of zoysiagrass in the far East, part II. Agronomy Abst. p.125.
17. Fonteno, W.C. 1996. Growing media: Types and physical / chemical properties. pp. 93-102. In: Reed, D.W. (Ed.). Water, media, and nutrition for greenhouse crops. Ball Publishing, Batavia, IL, USA.
18. Graham, J., Marshall, B. and Squire, G. 2003. Genetic differentiation over a spatial environmental gradient in wild Rubusidaeus populations. New Phytol.157: 667-675.
19. Grove, G.G. 1999. New angles on apple powdery mildew. Good Fruit Grower, Yakima, WA. pp.45-47.
20. Heath, R.L. and Pacher, L. 1968. Photo peroxidation in isolated chloroplast I. Kinetics and stoichiometry of fatty acid peroxidation. Arch. Biochem. Biophy. 125:189-198.
21. Hwang, Y.S. and Choi, J.S. 1999. Effect of mowing interval, aeration, and fertility level on the turf quality and growth of zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.). Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 13:79-90. (In Korean)
22. I.S.A. 1987. Analysis methods of soil and plants. Institute of Agricultural Science. RDA. Suwon. Korea. (In Korean)
23. Islam, M.R., Jeong, Y.T., Ryu, Y.J. , Song, C.H. and Lee, Y.S. 2009. Isolation, identification and optimal culture conditions of Streptomyces albidoflavus C247 producing antifungal agents against Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2. Mycobiology. 37:114-120.
24. Jin, R.D., Suh, J.W., Park, R.D., Kim, Y.W., Krishana, H.B., et al. 2005. Effect of chitin compost and broth on biological control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.). Nematology. 7:125-132.
25. Jung, W.C., Shin, T.S., Kim, B.S., Im, J.S. Lee, J.H., et al., 2008. Efficacy of antagonistics bacteria for biological control of Rhizoctonia blight (large patch) on zoysiagrass. Res. Plant Dis. 14:43-50. (In Korean)
26. Khan, A., Williams, K.L. and Nevalaine, H.K.M. 2004. Effects of Paecilomyces lilacinus protease and chitinase on the eggshell structures and hatching of Meloidogyne javanica juveniles. BiologicalControl. 31:346-352.
27. Kim, D.H., Lee, B.R., Lee, J.S., Li, M. and Kim, T.H. 2007. Proline and ammonia accumulation in the zoysiagrass infected with large patch. J. Korean Grassl. Sci. 27:37-44.
28. Kim, H.G. and Lee, S.J. 2010. Turfgrass and golf course. Sunjin Culture Press. p. 414-415. (In Korean)
29. Kim, K.N. 2006. Turfgrass management. Sahmyook University Press. p. 229-334. (In Korean)
30. Kim, K.S., Yoo, Y.K. and Lee, G.J. 1991a. Comparative salt tolerance study in Korean lawngrasses. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 32:118-124. (In Korean)
31. Kim, W.G., Shim, G.Y., Cho, W.D. and Lee, Y.H. 1991b. Anastomosis groups and pathogenicity of Rhizoctonia solani isolates causing Rhizoctonia blight of turfgrasses. Korean J. Plant Pathol. 7:257-259.
32. Kucuk, C. and Kivanc, M. 2004. In vitro antifungal activity of strains of Trichoderma harzianum. Turk. J. Biol. 28:111-115.
33. Lee, D.W., Lee, S.M., Kim, D.S., Choi, T.H. and Chang, T.H. 2012. Application of paraffin oil for control of large patch on Zoysia japonica. Asian J. Turfgrass Sci. 26:17-23. (In Korean)
34. Lee, J.H., Min, G.Y., Chang, J.W., Choi, S.M., Shim, G.Y., et al. 2015a. Investigation of fungicide response of Streptomyces spp. isolated from rhizosphere in zoysiagrass. J. Pesticide Sci. 19:54-63. (In Korean)
35. Lee, J.H., Min, G.Y., Shim, G.Y., Jeon, C.W. and Kwak, Y.S. 2015b. Physiological characteristics of Actinomycetes isolated from turfgrass rhizosphere. Weed Turf. Sci. 4:348-359. (In Korean)
36. Lee, S.M., Kim, D.S., Lee, K.S., Lee, C.K. and Lee, D.W. 2013. Antibiotic properties of Helicosporium sp. KCTC 0635BP to Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2 IV. Weed Turf. Sci. 2:202-206. (In Korean)
37. Lichtenthaler. 1987. Chlorophylls and carotenoids: Pigments of photosynthetic biomembranes. Methods Enzymol. 148:350-382.
38. Mao, S. 2007. Control of late blight (Phytophthora capsici) in pepper by Burkholderia sp. MPC-7. PhD Diss., Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju.
39. Marcum, K.B., Anderson, S.J. and Engelke, M.C. 1998. Salt gland ion secretion: A salinity tolerance mechanism among five Zoysiagrass species. Crop Sci. 38:806-810.
40. Min, G.Y., Lee, J.H. and Kwak, Y.S. 2014. A detail investigation of major diseases occurrence and pathogen population on turfgrass cultivation in nationwide. Weed Turf. Sci. 3:121-129. (In Korean)
41. Moller, I.M., Jensen, P.E. and Hansson, A. 2007. Oxidative modifications to cellular components in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. 58:459-481.
42. Monakhova, O.F. and Chernyad, I.I. 2002. Protective role of kartolin-4 in wheat plants exposed to soil drought. Appl. Biochem. Microbiol. 38:373-380.
43. Nawani, N.N., Kapadnis, B.P., Das, A.D., Rao, A.S. and Mahajan, S.K. 2002. Purification and characterization of a thermophilic and acidophilicchitinase from Microbispora sp. V2. J. Appl. Microbiol. 93:965-75.
44. Paik, S.B., Sim, S.C., Ku, H.M. and Yoe, W.G. 1998. Screening for antifungal medicinal plants against brown patch and large patch disease of turfgrass. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 12:183-194.
45. Paulitz, T.C. and Schroeder, K.L. 2005. A new method for the quantification of Rhizoctonia solani and R. oryzae from soil. Plant Dis.89:767-772.
46. Scandalios, J.G. 1993. Oxygen stress and superoxide dismutases. Plant Physiol. 101:7-12.
47. Shim, G.Y. and Kim, H. K. 2000. Control of large patch caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2 by combined application of antagonists and chemicals in golf courses. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 13:131-138. (In Korean)
48. Shim, G.Y., Kim, H.K., Bae, D.W., Lee, J.T. and Lee, H.J. 1997. Integrated control of large patch disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG2-2 by using fertilizers, fungicides and antagonistic microbes on turfgrass. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 11:173-183. (In Korean)
49. Shim, G.Y., Kim, J.W. and Kim, H.K. 1994. Occurrence of Rhizoctonia blight of zoysiagrasses in golf courses in Korea. Korean J. Plant Pathol. 10:54-60. (In Korean)
50. Shirai, K. 2006. Fungal chitinases. pp. 289-304. In: Guevara-Gonzalez, R.G. and Torres-Pacheco, I. (Eds.). Advances in agricultural and food biotechnology. Kerala: Research Signpost.
51. Shurtleff, M.C., Fermanian, T.W. and Randall, R. 1987. Controlling turfgrass pests. Prentice-Hall, Inc., New Jersey. P.449.
52. Smiley, R.W. 1983. Compendium of turfgrass diseases. APS Press, St. Paul. P.102.
53. Smironff, N. and Cumbes, Q.J. 1989. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity of compatible solutes. Phytochemistry 28:1057-1060.