Article | . 2017 Vol. 6, Issue. 4
Distribution, Classification, Breeding, and Current Use of Zoysiagrass Species and Cultivars in Korea



Department of Green Landscape Architecture, College of Bio-resource Science Dankook University1




2017.. 283:291


PDF XML




Zoysiagrass has been used in Korea as a native grass. Informations on distributions, classifications, breeding efforts and outputs, current production and uses of zoysiagrasses in Korea are summarized. During past a few decades, collection of naturally growing zoysiagrass ecotypes has been continued, followed by evaluation, selection and cross- pollination. Classification efforts using important morphological, biochemical traits and DNA polymorphisms resulted in the several suggestions of grouping zoysiagrass species and varieties. Zoysia japonica consistently form separate group, while Zoysia sinica and Zoysia macrostackya have been separately or inter-mixed. Z. matrella with some variations frequently grouped separately but with some similarity with Z. tenuifolia, which was recently renamed as Z. pacifica. Hybrid types of zoysiagrasses were frequently found in Korea. New varieties such as ‘Kunhee’ and ‘Green Ever’ etc. were bred by ecotype selections, while ‘Senock’, ‘Semil’, ‘Millock’ were bred through pollination. Molecular approaches were also used to introduce beneficial genes into zoysiagrasses with no practical outputs by legal regulations. Currently popular varieties are inter-specific hybrid types such as ‘Anyang’ and other local zoysiagrasses as well as common zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) Production area in Korea was estimated as 2,947 ha with increasing problems of mixed or contaminated species and varieties.



1. Bae, E.J., Park, N.C., Lee, K.S., Lee, S.M., Choi, J.S., et al. 2010. Distribution and morphology characteristics of native zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) grown in South Korea. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 24(2):97-105. (In Korean)  

2. Choi, D.G., Yang, G.M. and Choi, J.S. 2008. Flowering periods, genetic characteristics, and cross-pollination rate of Zoysia spp. in natural open-pollination. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 22(1):13-24. (In Korean)   

3. Choi, J.S. 1997. Morphological characteristics of medium-leaf type Zoysiagrasses (Zoysia spp.) and their classification using RAPDs. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 24(2):88-96. (In Korean)  

4. Choi, J.S., B.J. Ahn and Yang, G.M. 1997a. Distribution of native Zoysiagrasses (Zoysia spp.) in the south and west coastal regions of Korea and classification using morphological characteristics. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 38(4): 399-407. (In Korean)  

5. Choi, J.S., B.J. Ahn and Yang, G.M. 1997b. Classification of Zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) native to the southwest coastal region of Korea using RAPDs. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 38(6):789-795. (In Korean)  

6. Choi, J.S. and Yang, G.M. 2004. Development of new hybrid cultivar ‘Senock’ in Zoysiagrass. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 18(4):201-209. (In Korean)  

7. Choi, J.S. and Yang, G.M. 2005. Comparison of growth rate and cold tolerance with basic species, commercial lines, and breeding lines of Zoysiagrass. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 19(2):131-140. (In Korean)  

8. Choi, J.S. and Yang, G.M. 2006a. Development of new cultivar ‘Millock’ in Zoysiagrass. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 20(1):1-10. (In Korean)  

9. Choi, J.S. and Yang, G.M. 2006b. Sod production in South Korea. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 20(2):237-251. (In Korean)  

10. Choi, J.S. and Yang, G.M. 2011. Low temperature and salt tolerances of native Zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) Collected in South Korea. Asian J. Turfgrass. Sci. 25(2):138-146. (In Korean)  

11. Choi, J.S., Yang, G.M., Oh, C.J. and Bae, E.J. 2012. Morphologial characteristics and growth rate of medium-leaf type Zoysiagrasses collected at major sod production area in South Korea. Asian J. Turfgrass. Sci. 26(1):1-7. (In Korean)  

12. Hong, K.H. and Yeam, D.Y. 1985. Studies in interspecific hybridization in Korean lawngrass (Zoysia spp.). J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 26(2):69-178. (In Korean)  

13. Kim, D.H., Lee, J.P., Kim, J.B. and Mo,S.Y. 2000. Development of narrow leaf type cultivars ‘Konhee’ in zoysiagrass. Kor, Turfgrass Sci., 13(3):147-152. (In Korean)  

14. Kim, H.K., Kim, K.S., Joo, Y.K., Hong, H. Kim, K.N., et al. 1996. Variation of the morphological characteristics in the accessions of Zoysia species and their hybrid lines. Kor, Turfgrass Sci. 10(1):1-11. (In Korean)  

15. Lee, B.K., Kang, H.G., Ra ,N., Sun, H.J., Kwon, Y.I., et al. 2014. Development of distinction methods for male-sterile and dwarfism herbicide tolerant Zoysia japonica Steud. CNU J. Agric. Sci. 41(3):187-191. (In Korean)  

16. Lee, S., Yu, H.C., Yoon, B.S., Yang, G.M., Kim, J.Y., et al. 2013. Soil and morphological characteristics of native Zoysiagrasses by the habitats. Weed Turf. Sci. 2(1):55-61. (In Korean)  

17. Lim, S.H., Kang, B.C. and Shin, H.K. 2004. Herbicide resistant Turfgrass (Zoysia japonica cv. ‘Zenith’) plants by particle bombardment-mediated transformation. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 18(4):211-219. (In Korean)  

18. Lim, Y.P., Skogley, C.R. and Yeam, D.Y. 1990. Colchicine-Induced mutant in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.). Korean J. genetics. 12(3):191-204.   

19. Park G.H., Choi, J.S., Yun, C.H. and Ahn, B.J. 1994. DNA delivery into embryogenic cells of zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) by electroporation. Kor. J. Plant Tissue Culture 21:309-314. (In Korean)  

20. Sun, H.J., Song, I.J., Bae, T.W. and Lee, H.Y. 2010. Recent developments in biotechnological improvement of Zoysia japonica steud. J. Plant Biotechnol. 37:400-407.  

21. Tae, H.S., Hong, B.S., Shin, C.C., Jang, G.M., Kim, K.D., et al. 2014. Development and characteristics of new cultivar ‘Green Ever’ in Zoysiagrass. Weed Turf. Sci. 3(4):329-335. (In Korean)  

22. Yang, G.M., Ahn, B.J. and Choi, J.S. 1995. Identification of native zoysiagrass (Zoysia spp.) using morphological characteristics and esterase isozymes. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 36(2):240-247. (In Korean)  

23. Yeam, D.Y., Muray, J.J. and Bauchan,G.R. 1987a. Classification of Zoysiagrass uning morphological traits. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. Abstract. 5(1):128-129.   

24. Yeam, D.Y., Muray J.J. and Bauchan, G.R. 1987b. Classification of Zoysiagrass uning isozyme traits. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. Abstract. 5(1):130-131.  

25. You, H.K. and Choi, J.S. 1998. Comparison of genetic similarity among species and ecotypes of zoysiagrasses with that among species and cultivars of cool season grasses using RAPD. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. & Tech. 16(1):79.  

26. Yu, T.Y. and Yeam, D.Y. 1968. The effect of seeding date, age of seed and kind of covering soil on germination of (Zoysia Japonica STEUD). J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 4:73-78. (In Korean)  

27. Yu, T.Y., Yeam, D.Y., Kim, Y.J. and Kim, S.G. 1974a. Morphological studies on Korean Lawn Grasses (Zoysia spp.). J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 15(1):79-91. (In Korean)  

28. Yu, T.Y., Yeam, D.Y. and Kim, Y.J. 1974b. Germination-promoting effect with seed-coat scarification in Korean Lawn Grass (Zoysia Japonica STEUD) Seeds. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 15(2):187-193.  

29. Yu, T.Y., Yeam, D.Y. and Kim, Y.J. 1975. Promotion of low temperature and dark germinating potentiality in red light treated seeds of Zoysiagrass (Zoysia Japonica STEUD). J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 16(2):225-232.  



online submission
Most Viewed
Sub Menu
Sub Menu