Hyosung O&B Co., Ltd.1
Department of Horticultural Science, Chungnam National University2
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of liquid fertilizer containing humate (LFH) on changes of turfgrass quality and growth by investigating visual quality, chlorophyll content, dry weight of clipping, and nutrient content in leaves tissue. Treatments were designed as follows; control fertilizer (CF), HF-1 (CF+1.0 mL m-2 LFH), HF-2 (CF+2.0 mL m-2 LFH), and HF-3 (CF+4.0 mL m-2 LFH). As compared with CF, soil chemical properties of LFH treatments were not significantly. Visual quality and root dry weight of LFH treatments were higher than that of CF. Chlorophyll content, clipping yield and nitrogen uptake of HF-2 and HF-3 were increased 11.2-11.8%, 15.3-30.0%, 22-42% by application of LFH. The LFH level was positively correlated with visual quality, chlorophyll content, clipping yield or nutrient uptake amount. These results indicated that the application of LFH improved the growth and quality of creeping bentgrass by increasing nutrient uptake and by prompting root growth.
1. Ahn, Y.T., Kim, S.T., Kim, I.S., Kim, J.W., Kim, H.J., et al. 1992. Standard and practice for management in golf course. KTRI. Seongnam, Korea. (In Korean)
2. Arnon, D.I. 1949. Copper enzymes in isolated chloroplasts polyphenoloxidase in Beta vulgaris. Plant Physiol. 24(1):1-15.
3. Asenjo, M.C.G., Gonzalez, J.L. and Maldonado, J.M. 2000. Influence of humic extracts on germination and growth ryegrass. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant. Anal. 31:101-114
4. Cacco, G. and Dell’Agnola, G. 1984. Plant growth regulalor activity of soluble humic complexes. Can. J. Soil Sci. 64:225-228.
5. Carrow, R.N. 1996. Summer decline of bentgrass green. Golf Course Management 4:51-56.
6. Choi, H.S., Li, X., Kim, W.S. and Lee, Y. 2011. Effects of nutrient source on soil physical, chemical, and microbial properties in an organic pear orchard. Kor. J. Environ. Agric. 30(1):16-23. (In Korean)
7. Hamza, B. and Suggars, A. 2001. Biostimulants: Myths and realities. Turfgrass Trends 10(8):6-10.
8. Ho, J.Y., Maeng, S.H. and Park, W.J. 2015. Effects of ethylene precursor, auxin and methyl jasmonate on the aerechyma formation in primary root of maize (Zea mays). J. Life Sci. 25(2):37-43. (In Korean)
9. Hunter, A. and Anders, A. 2004. The influence of humate on turfgrass growth and development of creeping bentgrass. Acta Hortic. 661:257-264.
10. Hwang, S.H. 1999. Influence of starvation and humic acid on soil microbial 2-hydroxypyridine metabolism. J. Kor. Soil Environ. Soc. 4(1):13-23. (In Korean)
11. Kay, B.D. and Gronevelt, P.H. 1974. On the interaction of water and heat transport in frozen and unfrozen soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 38:395-400.
12. Kim, H.G., Seo, D.C., Cheong, Y.H., Kang, C.S., Sohn, B.K., et al. 2007. Effects of different humates on growth and fruit quality of tomato plant. Kor. J. Environ. Agric. 26(4):313-318.
13. Kim, J.S. and Hyun, T.K. 2011. Effect of NaCl stress on the growth, antioxidant materials, and inorganic ion content in head lettue seedlings. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 29(5):433-440. (In Korean)
14. Kim, J.S., Shim, J.S. and Kim, M.J. 2010a. Physiological response of chimese cabbage to salt stress. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 28(3):343-352. (In Korean)
15. Kim, M.J., Shim, C.K., Kim, Y.K., Park, J.H., Han, E.J. et al. 2017a. Effect of the concentration of humate on growth and yield of organically cultivated hot-pepper. J. Kor. Resour. Rec. Assoc. 25(1):67-78. (In Korean)
16. Kim, Y.S., Ham, S.K. and Lee, S.J. 2010b. Effect of liquid fertilizer contained medium of Lactobacillus sp. and Saccharomyces sp. on growth of creeping bentgrass. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 24(2):138-144. (In Korean)
17. Kim, Y.S., Ham, S.K. and Lim, H.J. 2010c. Change of soil physicochemical properties by mixed ratio of 4 types of soil amendments used in golf course. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 24(2):205-210. (In Korean)
18. Kim, Y.S., Ham, S.K., Kim, T.S. and Jeong, H.S. 2008. Effect of liquid fertilizer containing medium of Lactobacillus confusa and Pichia anomala on growth in creeping bentgrass. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 22(2):185-196. (In Korean)
19. Kim, Y.S., Ham, S.K., Lee, J.P. and Hwang, Y.S. 2012. The growth effects of creeping bentgrass by application of liquid fertilizer with saponin and liquid fertilizer with amino acid. Asian J. Turfgrass Sci. 26(1):54-59. (In Korean)
20. Kim, Y.S., Lee, K.S. and Ham, S.K. 2003. The effect of liquid fertilizer contained amino acids on the growth of bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds) and the chemical characteristics of soil. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 17(4):147-154. (In Korean)
21. Kim, Y.S., Lee, T.S., Cho, S.H. and Lee, G.J. 2017b. Growth and quality changes of creeping bentgrass by application of liquid fertilizer containing humic acid. Weed Turf. Sci. 6(3):272-281. (In Korean)
22. Lee, J.H., Choi, J.Y., Lee. S.H. and Joo, Y.K. 2008a. Effect of high-humidity and high temperature at Kentucky bluegrass growth in summer. Kor. J. Turfgrasss Sci. 22(2):133-140. (In Korean)
23. Lee, J.P., Yoo, T.Y., Moon, S.J., Ham, S.K. and Kim, D.H. 2008b. Effect of silicate on creeping bentgrass growth of green at the golf course during summer in Korea. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 22(2):217-224. (In Korean)
24. Liu, C. and Cooper, R.J. 2000. Humic substances influence creeping bentgrass growth. Golf Course Management 67(8):49-53.
25. MacCarthy, P., Malcolm, R.L., Clapp, C.E. and Bloom, P.R. 1985. An introduction to soil humic substances. pp 1-12. In: MacCarthy et al. (Eds.) Humic substances in soil and crop sciences, selected reading, Soil Sci. Soc. of Am., Madison, WI, USA.
26. NIAST. 1998. Methods of soil chemical analysis. NIAST, RDA, Suwon, Korea. (In Korean)
27. O’Donnell, R.W. 1973. The auxin-like effects of humic preparations from leonardite. Soil Sci. 116:106-112.
28. Russo, R.O. and Berlyn, G.P. 1990. The use of organic biostimulants to help low input sustainable agriculture. J. Sust. Agric. 1:19-42.
29. Shin, H.S., Rhee, D.S., Chung, K.H. and Lee, C.W. 2002. Molecular size distribution and spectroscopic characterization of humic and fulvic acids extracted from soils in different depth. Analy. Sci. Technol. 15(4):373-380. (In Korean)
30. Stevenson, J. 1994. Humus chemistry, genesis, composition, reactions. pp 453-471. Wiley, New York, USA.
31. Türkmen, Ö., Dursun, A., Turan, M. and Erdinç, C. 2003. Calcium and humate affect seed germination, growth, and nutrient content of tomato (Lycopersiocon esculentum L.) seedling under saline soil conditions. Acta. Agri. Scandinavica 54:168-174.
32. Vaughan, D. 1974. Possible mechanism for humate action on cell elongation in root segments of Pisum sativum under aseptic conditions. Soil Biol. Biochem. 6:241-247.
33. Yoon, O.S. and Kim, K.S. 2007. Effects of chitosan on the growth response of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 21(2):163-176. (In Korean)
34. Young, C.C. and Chen, L.F. 1997. Polyamines in humic acid and their effect on radical growth of lettuce seedlings. Plant and Soil. 195:143-149.
35. Zhang, X. and Ervin, E.H. 2004. Cytokinin-containing seaweed and humate extracts associated with creeping bentgrass leaf cytokinins and drought resistance. Crop Sci. 44:1737-1745.
36. Zhang, Z., Schmidt, R.E., Ervin, E.H. and Doak, S. 2002. Creeping bentgrass physiological responses to natural plant growth regulators and iron under two regimes. HortScience 37(6):898-902.