Article | . 2018 Vol. 7, Issue. 2
Effect of Four Soil Amendments on Turfgrass Establishment and Density in Creeping Bentgrass Grown in Sand-based Root Zone



Department of Environmental Design and Horticulture, College of Science and Technology, Sahmyook University1




2018.. 148:157


PDF XML




Research was initiated to evaluate four domestic and overseas organic soil amendments (SAs) on turfgrass groundcover and density and to provide basic information on practical sports turf establishment. This study was conducted in Agrostis palustris Huds. (CB) grown in sand-based root zone. A total of 20 treatments of SA+sand were prepared by mixing 10 to 50% (v/v). These amendments were SABP (Berger Peat), SAEP (Eco-Peat), SAGS (G1-Soil), and SAPP (Premier Peat). Turfgrass groundcover and density significantly varied with SAs, its mixing rate to sand and week after seeding (WAS). Cumulative turfgrass density was variable, but a great change occurred between 2 and 4 WAS. Turfgrass density at 2 WAS ranged from 36.7 (SABP 30) to 89.7% (SAGS 20), being 53.0% in differences among treatments. However, CB reached to carrying capacity around 6 WAS. Thus, most treatments were similar to 90% or so in density. At the end of study, overall groundcover ranged between 60.7 (SAEP 10) and 96.7% (SAPP 50). Proper mixing rate was variable with SAs, being 10 and 20% for SABP and SAGS, respectively. But the optimum rate was 50% for both SAEP and SAPP.



1. Bandaranayake, W., Qian, Y.L., Parton, W.J., Ojima, D.S. and Follett, R.F. 2003. Estimation of soil organic carbon changes in turfgrass systems using the CENTURY model. Agron. J. 95(3):558-563.  

2. Beard, J.B. 1982. Turf management for golf courses. Burgess Publishing Company Minneapolis, MN, USA.  

3. Bethke, C.L. 1988. A guide to the selection of peat for use in turf. Golf Course Manage. 56(3):100-112.  

4. Choi, B.J., Shim, J.S. and Park, H. 1994. Effect of organic material, active carbon and magnesium on the growth of Zoysia koreana. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 8(3):193-199. (In Korean)  

5. Ham, S.G., Kim, S.T., Kim, H.J. and Lee, S.K. 1997. Effect of IBDU complex and organic fertilizers for creeping bentgrass in golf course. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 11(3):167-172. (In Korean)  

6. Ham, S.G., Lee, J.J. and Kim, I.S. 1993. Effect of application of organic fertilizer on the growth of Korean lawngrass (Zoysia matrella L. Merr.). Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 7(2 ․ 3):61-66. (In Korean)  

7. Kerek, M. 2003. Labile soil organic matter as a potential nitrogen source in golf greens. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 35(12):1643-1649.  

8. Kim, D.C., Shim, J.S. and Chung, W.I. 1992. The effect of peat and chemical fertilizer application on the growth of Manilagrass (Zoysia matrella Merr.). Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 6(2):83-88. (In Korean)  

9. Kim, G.H., Kim, K.Y., Kim, J.K., Sa, D.M., Seo, J.S., et al. 2009. Soil science. Hyangmoonsa, Seoul, Korea. (In Korean)  

10. Kim, K.N. 2009a. Effect of soil organic amendment mixtures with water-absorbing polymer on growth characteristics in perennial ryegrass. J. Nat. Sci. Sahmyook Univ. 44:161-171. (In Korean)  

11. Kim, K.N. 2009b. Effect of soil organic amendment and water absorbing polymer on growth characteristics in Poa pratensis L. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 23(2):317-330. (In Korean)  

12. Kim, K.N. 2011. Effect of highly water-absorbing polymer on turfgrass quality of creeping bentgrass, Kentucky bluegrass, and zoysiagrass. Asian J. Turfgrass Sci. 25(1):59-68. (In Korean)  

13. Kim, K.N. 2012. Effect of polymer, calcium, perlite and chitosan in soil organic amendment on growth in perennial ryegrass. Asian J. Turfgrass Sci. 26(1):24-34. (In Korean)  

14. Kim, K.N. 2013. STM series III: Turfgrass establishment. 2nd ed., Sahmyook Univ. Press, Seoul, Korea. (In Korean)  

15. Kim, K.N. 2014a. Effect of polymer, calcium, perlite and chitosan in organic amendment on growth in Kentucky bluegrass. Weed Turf. Sci. 3(1):19-28 (in Korean)  

16. Kim, K.N. 2014b. Effect of organic soil amendments on establishment vigor, seedling emergence, and top growth in Kentucky bluegrass. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. Technol. 32(2):133-141. (In Korean)  

17. Kim, K.N. and Nam, S.Y. 2003. Comparison of early germinating vigor, germination speed and germination rate of varieties in Poa pratensis L., Lolium perenne L. and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. grown under different growing conditions. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 17(1):1-12. (In Korean)  

18. Kim, K.N. and Park, S.H. 2011. Effect of high water-swelling polymer rate on seedling survival of major turfgrasses grown on soil organic amendment mixtures. J. Kor. Env. Res. Tech. 14(2):21-32. (In Korean)  

19. Kim, K.N., Bae, Y.H., Cho, C.U. and Park, S.H. 2010. Germination characteristics and daily seed germinating pattern in new varieties of the third generation of creeping bentgrass grown under ISTA conditions. J. Kor. Env. Res. Reveg. Tech. 13(4):30-41. (In Korean)  

20. Kim, K.N., Goss, R., Park, S.H. and Shim, S.R. 2013. A greenhouse study comparing local soil amendments with overseas peats as an organic source for rootzone mixes in Korea. Int. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 12:819-823.  

21. Kim, K.N, Koh, S.G., Kim, Y.S., Shim, S.R. and Tae, H.S. 1998. A Study on the rootzone mix in the multi-layered soil system. 1998 Annual Fall Meeting Abstr. p.34-35. J. Kor. Inst. Landscape Architecture, Youngnam University, Gyoungnam, Korea. (In Korean)  

22. Kim, K.N., Nam, S.Y., Koh, S.K. and Kim, Y.S. 1999. Effect of root zone mixes on the growth of creeping bentgrass in putting green. 1999 Annual Meeting Abstract pp.130, ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.  

23. Koh, S.K., Tae, H.S. and Ryu, C.H. 2006. Effect of animal organic soil amendment on growth of Korean lawngrass and Kentucky bluegrass. Kor. Turfgrass Sci. 20(1):33-40. (In Korean)  

24. Lee, S.J. 2003. The effect of KOB-Soil as a soil amendment on turfgrass growth. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 17(1):13-17. (In Korean)  

25. Li, D., Joo, Y.K., Christian, N.E. and Miner, D.D. 2000. Inorganic soil amendment effects on sand-based sports turf media. Crop Sci. 40(4):1121-1125.  

26. Lucas, R.E., Rieke, P.E. and Famham, R.S. 1965. Peats for soil improvement and soil mixes. Michigan State Univ. Ext. Bull. 516.  

27. Madison, J.H. 1966. Optimum rates of seeding turfgrasses. Agron. J. 58:442-443.  

28. Puhalla, J., Krans, J. and Goatley, M. 2002. Sports fields: A manual for design, construction, and maintenance. Ann Arbor Press, MI, USA.  

29. Puustjarvi, V. and Robertson, R.A. 1975. Physical and chemical properties. pp. 23-24 In: D.W. Robinson and J.G.D. Lamb (Eds.), Peat in horticulture. Kinsealy Research Centre, Agricultural Institute, Dublin, Republic of Ireland.  

30. SAS. 2001. SAS/STAT User's guide, Version 8.00, SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, NC, USA.  

31. Tae, H.S., Lee, H.S, An, K.M. and Kim, J.B. 2006. Comparison of growth characteristics of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) cultivars in summer. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 20(2):147-156. (In Korean)  

32. Waddington, D.V. 1992. Soils, soil mixtures, and soil amendments. Agron. Monogr. 32:331-383. In D.V. Waddington, R.N. Carrow and R.C. Shearman (Eds.), Turfgrass. ASA-CSSA-SSSA, Madison, WI, USA.  



online submission
Sub Menu
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Menu
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Menu
Sub Menu