Department of Crop Science, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 34134, Korea1
School of Applied Life Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea2
Department of Bio & Environmental Technology, Seoul Women's University, Seoul 01797, Korea3
National Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Biosafety Division, Jeonju-si 54874, Korea4
One of the main concern of transgenic crops is unintentional release of unwanted gene or genes through pollen-mediated gene flow. Since 2009, transgenic canola (Brassica napus) contained herbicide resistant gene is being unintentionally released into the Korean ecosystem. This study was conducted to identify alternative herbicides to eliminate transgenic canola under greenhouse and field conditions in 2018 and 2019, Daejeon South Korea. Four pre- and five post-emergence herbicides were used at 1x and 2x recommended rates as a chemical treatment. The growth parameters of the trial plant and control efficacy of the herbicides determined separately according to the application method (pre and post) and experimental condition (greenhouse and field). Except glufosinate-ammonium, all the post-emergent herbicides including bentazone, fluthiacet-methyl, MCPA and bentazone sodium had almost 100% canola control efficacy at both 1x and 2x recommended rates. Regarding the pre-emergence herbicides, dichlobenil and oxyfluorfen showed a full control efficacy at both 1x and 2x recommended rates. It is worth noted that when linuron was applied, although some of the seeds were germinated, a gradual death was observed. While, s-metolachlor was not suggested to manage the canola as a chemical control because of its very low efficacy on this plant.
Al-Kothayri, G.R. and Hasan, A.A. 1990. Chemical control of annual weeds in irrigated onion in Hadhramount valley. Arab J. Plant Protec. (Lebanon) 8:49-54.
2. Baek, H.J., Won, S.Y., Kim, J.K., Sohn, S.I., Lee, K., et al. 2008. Study on the gene introgression from GM Chinese cabbage to major crops in Cruciferae. Kor. J. Int. Agric. 20:124-129. (In Korean)
4. Han. S.M., Kim, Y.T., Won, O.J., Choi, K.H., Rho, Y.H. and Park, K.W. 2016. The importation of genetically modified crops and its environmental impacts in Korea. Kor. J. Agri. Sci. 43:215-220. (In Korean)
5. Hoyle, M., Hayter, K., Cresswell, J.E. 2007. Effect of pollinator abundance on self-fertilization and gene flow: application to GM canola. Ecological Applications 17:2123-2135.
6. KBCH (Korea Biosafety Clearing-House) 2017. Current status of LMOs. Accessed in http://www.biosafety.or.kr on 21 December 2018.
7. Kim, C.G., Lee, B.K., Park, K.W., Choi, K.H. and Kim, H.M. 2008. Current status of research on environmental risk assessment of genetically modified crops in Korea. Kor. J. Weed Sci. 28(4):321-333.
8. Lee, B.K., Kim, C.G., Park, J.Y., Yi, H.B., Park, K.W., et al. 2007. Survey of herbicide resistant oilseed rapes around the basin of rivers in Incheon harbor area. Kor. J. Weed Sci 27(1):29-35. (In Korean)
9. Lee, B.K., Park, J.Y., Park, K.W., Harn, C.H., Kim, H.M. and Kim, C.G. 2010. Evaluation of nptII gene transfer from transgenic chili pepper to culturable microorganisms in rhizosphere soil. J. Korean Soc. Int. Agric. 22:288-292.
10. Lee, B. and Suh, S. 2011. A study on the trends and biosafety assessment of genetically modified crops. Research of Environmental Law 33:1-25. (In Korean)
11. Lim, Y., Yook, M.J., Zhang, C.J., Nah, G., Park, S. and Kim, D.S. 2015. Dormancy associated weedy risk of the F1 hybrid resulted from gene flow from oilseed rape to mustard. Weed Turf. Sci. 4:35-43. (In Korean)
12. Shahidul, I.M.D., Monjurul, I.M.D., Habibur R.M.D., Shahidul Haque B.M.D., Lee, J.J. and Park, K.W. 2016. Effect of herbicides on weed infestation and yield in boro rice. Res. on Crops 17(3):415-420.
13. Owen, M.D.K. and Zelaya, I.A. 2005. Herbicide-resistant crops and weed resistance herbicides. Pest Manag. Sci. 61, 301-31.
14. Park, K.W., Kim, C.G., Lee, B.K., Kim, D.Y., Park, J.Y., et al. 2007. Monitoring of Imported Genetically Modified Crops in the Cultivated Fields in Korea. Kor. J. Weed Sci. 27(4):318-324. (In Korean)
15. Park, K.W., Lee, B., Kim, C.G., Kim, D.Y. and Park, J.Y. 2010. Monitoring the occurrence of genetically modified maize at a grain receiving port and along transportation routes in the Republic of Korea. Food Control 21:456-461.
16. Rekha, K.B., Razu, M.S. and Reddy, M.D. 2003. Effect of herbicides in transplanted rice. Indian J. Weed Sci. 34:123-25.
17. Shin, S.Y., Jo, B.H., Moon, J.C., Lee, J.R., Choi, W., et al. 2016. Detection of LM canola with tolerance to glyphosate and glufosinate-ammonium via the Environmental monitoring in South Korea. J. Plant Biotechnol. (2016) 43:479-485 DOI:https://doi.org/10.5010/JPB.2016.43.4.479 (In Korean)