Article | . Vol. 8, Issue. 2
Correlation Analysis of Root Growth and Soil Physical Properties of Major Cool-Season Turfgrasses on USGA Soil Profile



Dept. of Environmental Design and Horticulture, College of Science and Technology,Sahmyook University, Seoul 01795, Korea1




.. 149:158


PDF XML




The management of soil physical properties is one of the most basic knowledge in cultural practice for sports turfgrass design, construction, and maintenance. This study was initiated to analyze the correlation between root growth of major cool-season turfgrasses (CSG) and soil physical properties which were established on United States golf association (USGA) soil profile. Turfgrass entries were comprised of 3 blends and 3 mixtures from Kentucky bluegrass (KB), perennial ryegrass (PR), and tall fescue (TF). In 2-year establishment of CSG, differences were significantly observed with soil surface hardness and water infiltration rate. The highest value of soil surface hardness was associated with KB and lowest with TF. Other entries such as PR and Mixtures I (KB:PR=40:60), II (KB:PR:TF=25:25:50) and III (KB:PR=30:70) were intermediate between KB and TF, depending on turfgrass species and mixing ratio. There were also great variations in infiltration rate. KB showed the fastest speed, being 1,960 mm·h-1. But PR had the lowest rate of 1,435 mm·h-1, being 26.7% slower in water infiltration speed, as compared with KB. TF was ranked between KB and PR with a rate of 1,890 mm·h-1. As for CSG mixtures, the higher the KB, the faster the infiltration rate, while the higher the PR, the slower the rate. Differences in soil surface hardness and infiltration rate were considered to result from growth habit and root growth characteristics. The correlation analysis with rooting growth development demonstrated significant negative values on soil surface hardness (r=-0.595) and water infiltration rate (r=-0.611).



1.  Adams, W.A. and Gibbs, R.J. 1994. Natural turf for sports and amenity: Science and practice. CAB International, Cambridge, UK.   

2.  Beard, J.B. 1973. Turfgrass: Science and culture. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., USA.   

3.  Beard, J.B. and Beard, H.J. 2005. Beard's turfgrass encyclopedia for golf courses, grounds, lawns and sports fields. Michigan State Univ. Press. East Lansing, M.I., USA.   

4.  Bell, M.J., Baker, S.W. and Canaway, P.M. 1985. Playing quality of sports surfaces: A review. J. Sports Turf Res. Inst. 61:26-45.   

5.  Canaway, P.M. 1985. Playing quality, construction and nutrition of sports turf. pp. 45-46. In: F. Lemaire (ed.) Proc. 5th Int. Turfgrass Res. Conf., Avignon, France. 1-5 July, Inst. Natl. de la Recherche Agron., Paris, France.   

6.  Carrow, R.N. and Petrovic, A.M. 1992. Effects of traffic on turfgrasses. Agron. Monogr. 32:285-330. In: D.V. Waddington, R.N. Carrow and R.C. Shearman (eds.), Turfgrass. ASA, CSSA, SSSA, Madison, WI, USA.   

7.  Harper II, J.C. 1969. Athletic fields. Agron. Monogr. 14:542-561. In: A.A. Hanson and F.V. Juska (eds.). Turfgrass science. ASA, Madison, W.I., USA.   

8.  Kim, K.N. 2013. STM series III: Turfgrass establishment. 2nd ed., Sahmyook Univ. Press, Seoul, Korea. (In Korean)   

9.  Kim, K.N. 2019. STM series II: Turfgrass management. 2nd ed., KS Publishing Company, Seoul, Korea. (In Korean)   

10.  Kim, K.N. 2015. Comparison of underground root growth characteristics of major cool-season grasses according to establishment stages in sports turf designed by the USGA soil system. Kor. J. Hort. Sci. & Technology 33(2):166-176. (In Korean)   

11. Kim, K.N., Choi, J.S. and Nam, S.Y. 2003. Turf performance of warm-season grass and cool-season grass grown in multi-layer system, USGA System and mono-layer system for athletic field. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 44(4):539-544. (In Korean)   

12. Kim, I.C, Joo, Y.K. and Lee, J.H. 2002. Correlation of soil physical properties and growth of turfgrass on the ground of Olympic-main stadium. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 16(1):31-40. (In Korean)   

13. Kim, K.N., Kwon, O.D. and Nam, S.Y. 1998a. A study on the adaptive performance of cool-season sports turf in Korea. J. Nat. Sci. Sahmyook Univ. 3(3):61-76. (In Korean)   

14. Kim, K.N. and Nam, S.Y. 2003. Comparison of early germinating vigor, germination speed and germination rate of varieties in Poa pratensis L., Lolium perenne L., and Festuca arundinacea Schreb. grown under different growing conditions. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 17:1-12. (In Korean)   

15. Kim, K.N. and Park, W.K. 2003. A study on cultural practices, growth rate and time to harvest in sod production of cool-season grass grown under pure sand soil. J. Nat. Sci. Sahmyook Univ. 8(1):19-33. (In Korean)   

16. Kim, K.N. and Shim, S.R. 2003. Comparison of soil surface hardness, soil compaction, and infiltration rate of warm-season and cool-season grasses grown under athletic field soil systems. J. Kor. Soc. Hort. Sci. 44(6):991-997. (In Korean)   

17. Kim, K.N., Shim, S.R., Yoon, P.S., Han, S.K., Cho, C.U. and Han, K.W. 1998b. Sports turf recommendation for soccer field with investigation of athletic fields in Japan, Germany, and USA. J. Nat. Sci. Sahmyook Univ. 3(3):51-60. (In Korean)   

18. Kondo, M. and Ozawa, T. 1977. Fundamental studies under carrying capacity of lawns and lawns-area. Zoen-Jassi 40(3):11-23.   

19. Korea Sport Science Institute. 1998. Establishment and maintenance of turfgrass ground. Dongweonsa, Seoul, Korea. (In Korean)   

20. KOWOC (Korean Organizing Committee for the 2002 FIFA World Cup-Korea/Japan). 1999. Survey for athletic fields in Japan and Europe for the construction of 2002 world cup soccer stadium. p. 55. KOWOC, Seoul, Korea. (In Korean)   

21. KOWOC (Korean Organizing Committee for the 2002 FIFA World Cup-Korea/Japan). 2000a. Comprehensive project report on the establishment of the turfgrass ground of 2002 world cup soccer stadium. p. 306. KOWOC, Seoul, Korea. (In Korean)   

22. KOWOC (Korean Organizing Committee for the 2002 FIFA World Cup-Korea/Japan). 2000b. Guidelines to the establishment and maintenance of the turfgrass ground of 2002 world cup soccer stadium. p. 133. KOWOC, Seoul, Korea. (In Korean)   

23. Lee, H.J., Song, J.W. and Ku, J.H. 2001. Effect of root zone cooling on growth and mineral contents of turfgrasses in simulated athletic field during summer season. Kor. J. Turfgrass Sci. 15:169-179. (In Korean)   

24. Meyer, W.A. and Watkins, E. 2003. Tall fescue (Festuca aruninacea ). pp. 107-127. In : M.D. Casler, A.A. and R.R. Duncan (ed.), Turfgrass Biology, Genetics, and Breeding. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA.   

25. Park, W.K. 2011. Effect of seeding rates on the growth, turf performance and sod quality in Kentucky bluegrass grown in USGA soil system. MS Thesis, Sahmyook Univ., Seoul, Korea. (In Korean)   

26.  Puhalla, J., Krans, J. and Goatley, M. 2002. Sports fields: A manual for design, construction and maintenance. Ann Arbor Press, MI, USA.   

27. SAS Institute, Inc. 2001. SAS/STAT user's guide: Statistics, Version 8.00, SAS Inst., Inc., Cary, N.C., USA.   

28. Shim, S.R. and Jeong, D.Y. 2002a. Physical properties of soil and turfgrass wear characteristics of soccer fields: A simulation of the Incheon 2002 world cup stadium. J. Kor. Inst. Landscape Architecture 30(1):96-104. (In Korean)   

29. Shim, S.R. and D.Y. Jeong. 2002b. Turfgrass selection for soccer fields - A simulation of the Incheon 2002 world cup stadium- J. Kor. Inst. Landscape Architecture 30(2):88-94. (In Korean)   

30. Shim, S.R., Jeong, D.Y., and Kim, K.N. 2000. Planting foundations and turfgrass species adapted to grounds. J. Kor. Inst. Landscape Architecture 28(2):61-70. (In Korean)   

31. Snow, J.T. 1993. The whys and hows of revising the USGA Greeen construction recommendations. USGA Green Section RECORD 31(2):4-6.   

32. Turgeon, A.J. 2005. Turfgrass management. 7th ed., Prentice-Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. USA.   

33. Wallner, S.J., Becwar, M.R. and Butler, J.D. 1982. Measurement of turfgrass heat tolerance in vitro. J. Am. Soc. Hortic. Sci. 107:608-613.   

34. Watschke, T.L. and Schmidt, R.E. 1992. Ecological aspects of the turf communities. Agron. Monogr. 32:129-174. In: D.V. Waddington, R.N. Carrow and R.C. Shearman (eds.), Turfgrass. ASA, CSSA, and SSSA, Madison, WI, USA.   

35. Yoon, K.B. 1982. Landscape trees, Iljogak, Seoul, Korea. (In Korean)   



online submission
Sub Menu
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Menu
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Banner
Sub Menu
Sub Menu